How to have a smaller impact on our small pond wildlife

A Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) seen with a spider on its nose. Photo by Nicholas McCarney

Reducing impacts of freshwater fishing on non-target wildlife

Take a second and try to imagine that you are a freshwater turtle. You are slowly making your way along the bottom of a murky pond, searching for your next meal, when there in front of you is a tasty little snack – maybe it’s a freshwater shrimp. You approach slowly, carefully.. And SNAP! You’ve got it! But wait, what is happening, something is pulling you by your mouth from the water, you fight back but there is a sharp tugging in your mouth. Soon, you are pulled from the water and are in the hands of a confused fisherman. You are frightened and you struggle to break free… 

Now, let’s put ourselves in the fisherman’s shoes. They didn’t want to catch a turtle! They were just looking for a catfish! What do they do now? And what could they have done differently?

Freshwater fishing is a popular sport in much of the world, and it can actually help protect wild areas and stimulate the economy of places with good fishing sites. Unfortunately, sometimes non-target wildlife, meaning not the species being fished for, is injured in the process, through getting accidentally caught or by being tangled in discarded fishing line. 

Warning: Some images in this article contain injured wildlife and may be unpleasant.

What animals are negatively impacted by freshwater fishing? How?

If you are fishing at a great location that happens to have a lot of fish, that probably means that it is a fairly healthy system, which also means there is plenty of other wildlife there too. Unfortunately, this means that there are other things that you can catch by accident, or animals that can be harmed by any gear that gets left behind. 

Animals that are predacious, or scavengers, like turtles, are very vulnerable to being caught by fishermen. The turtles are either waiting at the bottom of a pond/lake or they are actively searching for prey. When they come across bait, they chomp down, getting hooks caught in their mouths or even completely swallowing them. 

Things like reptiles, birds, and even mammals can get entangled on left-behind fishing line or injured by discarded hooks or other gear that is left behind. 

A Florida Softshell Turtle (Apalone ferox) with a hook stuck inside its mouth. Photo from Swamp Girl Adventures Reptile Rehabilitation.

What are the consequences?

For turtles that get hooks stuck in their mouth or throats, the result can be fatal. Though most of these animals will not die quickly from their injuries, the hooks tend to limit the animal from being able to feed, so they slowly starve. Otherwise, these injuries can become infected or cause the animal to get caught on branches or rocks, and be unable to search for food or get away from predators. 

Discarded hooks and fishing line can cause a wide range of issues for wildlife. Hooks and line can be ingested, causing similar issues as mentioned above, or animals can become entangled in them and trapped. 

Though this is true for any wildlife, birds in particular are found tangled in line and are often found once it is too late, mainly from the struggle of trying to break free. Additionally, they sometimes use it in their nests which can cause their young to be strangled on it later on, or it is eaten which causes a range of internal issues.. 

How can we reduce these risks? 

The good news is, there are a lot of ways that we can help mitigate this problem and reduce the risk of accidentally harming wildlife while enjoying recreational fishing. Let’s take a look. 

1- Do not leave anything behind when you leave a natural area:

This is probably the biggest and easiest point, for both fisherman and non-fishermen. From fishing line, to hooks, to food wrappers and even food waste, if you pack it in, pack it out. If we want to keep natural areas healthy and pristine, so that we can continue to enjoy them, we have to make sure to never leave any trash behind. If there are bins to be used, use them, and if not, put it in a bag and carry it home with you.

With fishing line in particular, if your line gets tangled up, cut the line and unwind it, take the extra time to get it out. If your line is snagged on vegetation and you absolutely can not get it out, cut it as close to the hook as possible.

2- Consider using “lower-impact” hooks and lures:

What do I mean by this? There are a range of hooks that can be used for sport fishing and even fishing for food. Hooks that 1) are unbarbed and easier to remove 2) that rust away after time – so if they end up in a turtle they may rust away and allow it to recover 3) Lures that do not have multiple hooks – when an animal gets tangled in these it is extremely detrimental.

A Peninsula Cooter Turtle ( Pseudemys peninsularis) that was caught on a 3-hooked lure, but was luckily treated and released by Swamp Girl Adventures Reptile Rehabilitation. You can see the lure is caught in both the foot and the mouth.

3- Consider not using bait (especially if it is toxic):

Of course bait is helpful to fishing, however, fish are often more visual predators, whereas turtles use scent to find their prey. Using lures instead of bait slightly lowers your chances of catching a fish, but greatly lowers your chances of catching a turtle. Make sure that your bait is not toxic to animals. 

4- Respect the environment you are using:

Do not destroy vegetation, pollute or leave behind waste. A healthy and clean ecosystem helps protect wildlife and makes it so everyone can enjoy the area. 

5- If you catch a non-target animal, take action!

See more below

What can you do if you catch a turtle by accident or find an injured turtle? 

If you catch a turtle by accident, you have a few options depending on the scenario. 

If you catch a turtle and get it onto land, and the hook is stuck, you can:  Put the turtle into some kind of holding device (a box, bucket etc) and from there you can 1) Take it to the nearest wildlife rehabilitation center 2) call your rehabilitation center and they will come get it for you. Only remove the hook yourself if you are confident you can do so without harm to yourself or the animal. 

These organizations are non-profit, so they won’t charge you for the care. However, if you are able to donate to the organization it really helps!

If the turtle escapes, call your nearest wildlife rehabilitation center to report it, so they can keep an eye on the situation and try to catch the animal to treat it. 

If you think a turtle is on the end of your line, and can not get it to the surface or near you: You can cut the fishing line a bit longer, so that it is easier for the staff from the wildlife center to catch the turtle later, or to help that the hook does not go too far down into the turtle where it will require surgery. Call your local wildlife center immediately!

If you see any injured animal, such as a turtle with a fish hook in its mouth or a bird tangled in fishing line, call your local wildlife center for help. Save the number in your phone so it is a quick call away!

How else can you help?

There are many ways that anyone can help out with these problems: 

Volunteer to do a clean-up in natural areas with your local community or even just with friends and family.

Volunteer at your local wildlife rehabilitation center, call and see what you can do to help! 

Spread awareness! Education about these issues is a very important step to helping reduce them. When people are made aware of these problems, they are generally more willing to make changes. You can use social media, and even discuss in person about the problem. An important piece to this is to provide information in a receivable and approachable way, with evidence, to convince people to make a change, without starting an argument.

Donate money or resources to your local wildlife rehabilitation center. These centers are non-profit and depend on donations to keep running. If you want to donate supplies instead of money, you can contact your local center to see what it is that they currently need.

A “swamp and sweep” clean-up with Swamp Girl Adventures Reptile Rehabilitation.

A special thanks to Nicholas McCarney and Kim Titterington for meeting with me to talk about this issue. If you are interested to hear more on this topic watch these interviews:

Learn more with the interviews:

Nicholas McCarney on fishing and its impact on non-target wildlife:

Kim Titterington (SwampGirl) on receiving wildlife with fishing related injuries and what to do if you find an injured animal:

Hey, what about the imaginary turtle!

… the fisherman places you into a dark box, and you lay motionless as you are transported to a wildlife rehabilitation center. The box opens and there are bright lights around you. Hands reach in to feel around your mouth, you are still afraid, but you do not move. In a quick and skilled motion, the hook is removed from your mouth. OUCH… but then relief. The box closes again. Darkness. Before you know it, the box opens and you are on the edge of your pond once again. You scurry from the box and into the water, as fast as your legs can take you, and swim to the far side of the pond. You had an unpleasant day, but you are now safe and healthy back in your home.

A Florida Softshell Turtle (Apalone ferox) that had a hook removed from its mouth by. Swamp Girl Adventures Reptile Rehabilitation.

Take a look at some of these organizations that help with wildlife rehabilitation and donate if you can!

The Psychology of Slot Machines

When you think of a casino your mind probably conjures images of tense poker games, spinning roulette wheels and bustling blackjack tables. In terms of revenues and popularity all three of these classic casino games pale in significance to the shiny, whizzing slot machines that dominate the floor space.

In fact, research shows that slot machines were responsible for the greatest percentage of revenues in America’s gambling capital Las Vegas. Studies also found that the city’s 39,680 machines earn on average $79,962 a year.

The reasons behind the success of slot machines lies in our brains, deep within our psyche which we will explore in this article. Read on to find out the psychology behind our collective attraction to slot machines.

Cognitive Dissonance – The Psychological Phenomenon That Helps Us Gamble

According to World Health Organization figures, there are an estimated 1 billion smokers on the planet and statistically, half of them will die as result of their habit. Despite all of the numerous resources, these smokers continue to puff away on cigarettes in full knowledge that it is shortening their life expectancy.

What allows smokers to do this is a psychological phenomenon called cognitive dissonance whereby they disassociate from the well-known evidence that their smoking is killing them. This cognitive dissonance allows them to happily smoke without suffering a panic attack or intense waves of fear every time they light up.

Similarly, slot machines provoke cognitive dissonance amongst players. Every licensed slot machine in a land-based casino or online has a Return to Player (RTP) percentage that players can easily access.

This tells players on average, how much money they can expect to lose from every $100 spent wagering. Despite this figure proving to players that they will lose more than they win on average, people continue playing.

In much the same way that the nicotine rush of a cigarette makes the risks seem worth it, the chances of a big win help gamblers forget that they will on average, lose more than they will win. 

Dopamine – The Brains Reward System

Whenever we do something that our primitive brain finds to be good or beneficial, such as eating, procreating and exercising a neurotransmitter called Dopamine is released in our brains. This chemical messenger is synonymous with pleasure and when it is released, we can often feel a sense of euphoria.

Video gaming and in particular slot machines have been designed to deliver great highs and waves of euphoria to players. Because money is at stake, the risks to the individual are high so when a win occurs a huge amount of Dopamine is released into the players brain.

Every time this happens the brain begins to further associate slot machines with these intense feelings of pleasure. This is often why people continue to play and play slot machines even when they are losing, because they are constantly in search of that Dopamine rush that a win will trigger.

Unlike most other gambling games, slot machines have been designed to consistently offer small rewards to players to keep them engaged and coming back. Whilst your chances of winning the jackpot might be miniscule, you are never far away from winning free spins or bonuses.

These features have been specifically designed to activate that reward system inside your brain as when you begin to associate slots with pleasure, you will be more likely to continue playing.

Interactive Controls – Increasing Control

Humans love certainty in life, it is the reason that for millennia we have searched for the answers to all of life’s big questions. Unfortunately, much of life is uncertain and as a result we seek out certainty in as many areas of our lives as possible.

Slot machines play into this human desire to gain greater control despite the slots themselves being inherently uncertain. Psychologists have found that buttons, even on the simplest items help people to feel in control, especially when the pushing of them triggers a pre-programmed, visually appealing outcome.

Every time you push down on the ‘spin’ button on a physical slot machine or an online slot, you are taking control in a way that your brain views as positive. Each time you press the button, the visual whirlwind of colours and shapes in front of your eyes release Dopamine in your brain.

No matter how many times you push the button, the same thing will happen, the reels on the slot will spin. This simple yet effective feedback loop boosts feelings of control amongst players which encourages them to ignore the uncertainty of winning or losing and play on for longer.

‘Spin’ buttons help slots players to feel more in control whilst gambling.

Visual & Audio Cues – Making Memories

You may have won small amounts of money from a scratchard or a lottery ticket before, but unless it was a significant amount, you are unlikely to vividly remember it. That’s because the process of buying a scratchard or lottery ticket and collecting your winnings are relatively boring.

However, if you were to win the same amount of money playing a slot machine the memory would be much more prominent in your mind. That’s because of the audio and visual cues that these games use to engage you. Online slot providers like Wink Slots offer players various themed games that all have a distinct theme tune and brightly colored graphics, making the games a lot more attractive than an average casino game like roulette.

Wins on a slot machine game are often followed by the sound of coins dropping from a height, flashing dollar signs on the screen and an array of flashing lights on the slot terminal. This makes a win on a slot a full-body experience that is not only intensely pleasurable and rewarding, but memorable too.

When these wins become etched on your brain, your Dopamine reward system is more likely to be activated whenever you think of slot machines. This helps to keep even the most casual of gamblers interested in slots for a long time, potentially even years after spinning the reels.

Summing Up

Slot machines aren’t a trick, nor have they been designed to deceive you and appeal to your primitive brain. Rather they are enjoyable distractions designed part by intention and part by accident to engage you for as long as possible.

There is an awful lot that can be learned about the human brain and psyche from slot machines, perhaps much more than we already know…

Don’t Eat Pokeweed Until You’ve Seen This!

Pokeweed, or sometimes referred to simply as poke or poke salat, is a native plant to the eastern deciduous forests of the US. It is one of the most common causes for calls to poison control in part because the berries are mistaken for grapes. They are most definitely toxic and these toxins could kill you. Yet, pokeweed is also used in traditional southern dishes (poke salat), and people eat the individual ripe berries so as to treat a wide range of ailments.

I was quite confused by this dichotomy at first so I wanted to explore the history and chemistry a bit more. That lead to this video:

What I found talking to the experts here was that the poison is really dependent on how much you take. Many drugs are like this. Aspirin at small doses is totally ok, and in fact acts as an anti-inflamatory drug. But if you take a hundred pills, you’ll likely die from it.

The problem with pokeweed that makes it different from aspirin is that the plant contains over a thousand different chemicals. Many of these toxins are produced by the plant to keep herbivores from eating it (deer, caterpillars, etc). Clearly some of the toxins (like the saponins) are really bad for us. In the video I found that I’d only need ~5 mg of saponins to kill me. That’s about 1/6th the weight of a grain of sand. That’s not much.

The main question was, if you can get rid of the bad toxins, are there other chemicals that are beneficial to us in the plant? Maybe. People have eaten it for hundreds if not thousands of years. I’m still not convinced it’s worth the risk given there is almost no data on it. However, I’d love for someone to research it on humans a bit more. I think we could learn a lot from a few detailed studies.

Learn more:

Happy foraging everyone and remember to be safe with this plant.

11 Money-Saving Tips for Students Who Are Into Traveling

Since traveling has been made affordable and accessible, many students became obsessed with visiting new places and new cultures. Of course, there is nothing more exciting than meeting different people and getting to know their lifestyles.

However, excessive travels are still too expensive for a student budget. It does not stop avid travelers, but it makes them more economic. Cutting expenses can help students afford more in the receiving country. It is important to remember that the level of knowledge must be maintained and updated even if you are traveling. For example, the resource is designed to help students. It is always interesting to read wherever you are. 

But it is not the only way they can save their funds. Knowing a few tricks can help to decrease the average budget per travel. Interested? Read ahead!

Cut Your Educational Service Costs

Many students today have extra education-related expenses. They include the usage of online libraries, subscription for online courses, purchase of books and other materials, etc. Students also spend on academic help provided by essay writing companies.

You can significantly cut your expenses on the latter select PaperWriter when choosing an academic helper. This service lists the most popular professional with their pros and cons to make your choice easier.

Forget About Fancy Hotels

Do not think that 5-star hotels define your travel. Quite the contrary. The more local you become, the better. You’ll see how real people live and save lots of money for other experiences.

Thus, consider renting a flat or a room from locals. Use websites like Airbnb or Rentberry to see the best offers. Sometimes you can get lucky to rent a nice place for as little as $10 per person. Can you imagine that?

Even local tourists who travel across their country should look for cheaper options. Hotels often make your experience so much far from the reality that you may not even feel satisfied with the whole trip.

Seek Cheaper Transportation Offers

You must have noticed that already – airfares for direct flights are sometimes much more expensive than for connecting ones. Take advantage of that. Buy those tickets that are cheaper with a longer layover. Go to the city in-between and see what it has to offer.

Also, cut your travel costs by combining several trips into one. For example, a journey to Las Vegas can be extended to a journey to the Grand Canyon. Isn’t it beautiful?

Choose Regional Airports

If you have an opportunity to travel to smaller airports near your point of destination, choose those to save your money. Low-cost airlines choose these airports as their hubs. Thus, you’d be able to cut your airfare costs roughly by 30% if you make this choice.

Large airports near big cities charge a lot from airlines. Thus, your ticket is getting more and more expensive. Smaller airports have fewer taxes. That’s why your ticket drops in price. 

Such airports are usually very well connected with the city, so you won’t have a problem commuting as well.

Go Off-Season

If your goal is to discover a city or a place, you do not have to go there when the season is high. Let the place chill out from tourists a bit. It is not only beneficial for your pocket but also promises a way better travel experience.

Some places require you to go on a trip when the season is on. However, in most cases, going somewhere when the season is low is the best idea.

Use Public Transportation

Uber and Lyft are great, but public transportation is much more economical. Also, it provides you with a better understanding of what life looks like for regular citizens. They do not go by taxi every day, so you should try buses, too.

In Europe, for example, the public transportation system is very well developed. You can reach whatever place you need by using just one kind of transportation. Also, most cities have a system of discounts when you buy a daily or weekly ticket.

Can Drive? Rent a Car

If you are sure about your driving skills, it is highly recommended to rent a car then. By driving, you can discover places that are far from the main tourist paths. You can also stay late and change your plans whenever you see fit. Public transportation does not allow such flexibility.

Do your research on driving in a new place or a new country. Sometimes locals share some useful information that can guarantee extra savings for you.

Never Forget About Your Student Benefits

Many public and private organizations around the globe encourage students by providing them with certain benefits. However, sometimes companies intentionally keep silent about those.

Do not be afraid to claim a discount if you think you can have one. You are entitled to it if you have proof of being a student. When traveling abroad, keep your ISIC card with you to get discounts there too. You’d be surprised, but these benefits can help you save up to 20% of your travel budget.

Have a Nutritious Breakfast

Make sure you are full before you leave your place of stay in the morning. Having a nice breakfast means lots of energy and saves money. If you eat properly, you’ll be spending less on food. Also, you’ll feel great up until lunch.

Eat in Small Family-Owned Cafes

Going to fancy restaurants may be interesting only a few times. Some gourmands or cooking fans will definitely appreciate the atmosphere and taste. For most travelers, eating is about maintaining energy levels and feeling gastronomic satisfaction.

Thus, google family-owned cafes with a nice rating nearby. Such smaller places value their clients much more than highly advertised places. You’ll get a chance to discover local cuisine for little money. The atmosphere in such cafes is also one of a kind.

Do Pet-Sitting

Many business people have to travel a lot. Most of them have pets and nobody to take care of them. Thus, a new type of traveling called pet-sitting is already benefiting many students all over the world.

There are some websites that let you find people who’d let you stay for free at their place if you promise to take care of their pets. The job is not a hard one, but it definitely means lots of saved money for you.

Final Words

These are only a few tips to make your trips not expensive. Every new journey requires an individual approach to its budget planning. 

However, one thing remains common: spend critically and wisely rather than emotionally. Your comfort is important, but it is not always about fancy hotels and expensive restaurants.

The Scientifically Proven Benefits of CBD

Unless you have been living under a rock, you’ve probably heard about CBD oil already. CBD refers to cannabidiol, which is an active ingredient of the cannabis Sativa plant. Unlike its other “relatives”, such as THC, CBD is not psychoactive. It means that it won’t produce you any high feelings. Since it’s been legalized in so many states, most people have already included CBD in their routines. Apart from being legal and scientifically proven to be effective, CBD gained popularity over the years because it’s a natural supplement that can be used so easily. Coming in so many forms, CBD can be administered orally or topically. CBD products can be found in many local stores, dispensaries, or online. 

Various psychological, physical, and emotional benefits have been credited to the use of marijuana, since a long time ago. CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) are the most researched ingredients from cannabis and hemp plants. Both of these extracts interact with human’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) through certain actions. Let’s see some of the following scientifically proven benefits of CBD.

Maintains your brain health

CBD for health brain? Yes, please. In today’s world, being physically fit has become more important than ever. However, we tend to forget that being healthy doesn’t just mean exercising daily. It includes how well you rest, how able you are to clear your mind and focus on important things, having a good memory, etc. All of these things are regulated by our brain. Indeed, a healthy lifestyle encourages brain strength, as much as losing weight, and exercising. But, do you know how well your brain is functioning right now? Of course, being fit can help you with irregular heartbeat and low blood pressure. 

But no exercising can boost your mental health 100%, so, ignoring your symptoms can be a bad idea. Some studies have concluded that a healthy lifestyle can promote brain health. Paying attention to what you eat, how much you sleep, and how much stress you handle daily is extremely important. Unfortunately, many of us find it difficult to cope with everyday stress, and we tend to end up depressed and anxious. But there is something you can do to improve your mental health and overall well-being. When it comes to a healthy lifestyle, there are various things you can do to make you feel better. Adding a few drops of CBD oil everyday can give you the improvement you need. 

But do you know that there’s a labor time when determining when to collect a hemp plant? Knowing when to harvest hemp for optimal CBD power can make so much difference. It takes a while for the product to heal before it can actually be sold. Also, CBD hemp is harvested naturally, by hand, so that it reduces contaminants. However, if you’re looking for any CBD, you should first ask your doctor for recommendations. But make sure that your pets aren’t consuming it in smoke form. All you have to do is to do a little research before you actually start taking CBD. 

Can help in the improvement of bone metabolism

CBD oil is also known to work best in the improvement of bone metabolism. Maintaining strong and healthy bones is necessary if you want to avoid the well-known painful joints. You know, the ones that your parents or grandparents are complaining about every day. CBD blocks the enzyme that breaks the bone-building elements in your body, by protecting against diseases. So, it means that it cuts down the risk of osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. New research has been exploring a lot of CBD’s powerful ability to speed up fracture healing and promote bone thickness. 

There are millions of people around the world who have osteoporosis – it is responsible for millions of bone fractures annually, meaning that every few seconds, someone breaks their bones because of this horrible condition. Fragile bones can lead to fracture, breaks, that also lead to chronic pain and flexibility problems. But CBD can help with osteoporosis! The most active ingredients found in the cannabis plant, CBD and THC can do their job effectively in reducing the symptoms of osteoporosis. CBD appears to improve the growth of bones. 

Pain relief

CBD also has a therapeutic effect, which makes it able to help with pain and inflammation. It has been used by people with chronic pain, offering them an alternative to traditional medication. Many patients claimed that they feel a lot better after using CBD oil for pain. It is scientifically proven that it can help with treating headaches, insomnia, mental health disorders, arthritis, and other chronic syndromes. For many centuries, people managed to treat their chronic pain using marijuana for medical purposes. Now, medical marijuana is associated with CBD, which seems legit. 

The active ingredients found in the marijuana plant have pain relief properties, which are the most common benefits of CBD. Chronic pain is the most common affection that people suffer from, and people are tired of searching for treatments. However, more studies need to be done until we can conclude the exact benefits of CBD. Although this doesn’t mean it’s not effective, it’s just recommended to consult your doctor before using it. 

Combats anxiety and depression

Anxiety and depression – two common mental health conditions experienced globally. When a person is diagnosed with this type of condition, doctors usually prescribe medication (pharmaceutical drugs). But this option isn’t always working; some people even become addicted, so it’s best to consider other treatments. Fortunately, an emerging treatment is CBD oil. With each passing month or year, CBD oil is becoming more popular, being effective for treating anxiety and depression. 

These conditions come with a variety of symptoms, including excessive worry, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, panic attacks, extreme self-consciousness, feelings of sadness, etc. A person who has anxiety becomes less interested in the activities they once enjoyed. So, how to use CBD for anxiety and depression? You either choose CBD oil and put a few drops under your tongue, mixing it with food, or vaping it. If you’re looking for CBD for therapeutic purposes, it’s important to understand that each product works differently for each person. Therefore, don’t forget to consult your doctor before taking any CBD product. 

5 Scientific Theories Which Can Help You Improve Your Betting

Betting involves making conscious choices informed by data. Punters usually analyze data on teams and players before using their mobile sport betting app to place bets. If you are a betting fan, you should know that the betting firms invest a lot in research on psychology, statistics, and finance. As a result, you also need to enlighten yourself to enhance your chances of winning continually. In this article, you’ll learn about five scientific theories that can help you improve your sports betting.

Theory of Large Numbers

The theory of large numbers proposes that when an event is repeated many times, the average result will be closer to the mean. In the beginning, it won’t be easy to perceive the law of large numbers, but it will make sense over time. This law helps to protect punters from blind trend betting. 

Using this law, before placing your bets on a platform like Betway, you must have considered the performance of a team over a long period to determine whether they can win a game or not. Your research and analytical skills will be called into action. 

Efficient Market Hypothesis

This theory suggests that market prices include all available information and are regarded as the fair price for a given asset. A smart investor is one who can beat the market in the long run. For instance, if the odds for Chelsea Beating Manchester United are 2.50 and all information has been taken into account, one of their key players gets injured the night before, the odds might drop to 2.30.

As per the theory, many people will want to bet on Manchester United that the prices will drop to 2.30 without trading taking place. Therefore, to succeed as a sports bettor, you must have statistical and analytical skills. 

Law of Small Numbers

According to this theory, people tend to think that a small number of observations are representative. This law applies to the tipsters in the sports betting scenario. For instance, you can follow a tipster on social media because they have displayed three out four winning bets and a detailed argument. Such tipsters usually attract a large number of followers as they expect the magic to continue. 

However, in a short while, the tipster is under pressure to win when he stops winning. Therefore, this theory will help you when choosing a tipster to follow. They should have a large enough number of wins to convince you that their strategy is working.  

Green Lumber Fallacy

This is the bias of individuals to incorrectly believe that they have valuable information. According to the theory, just because you watch many rugby matches does not make you an expert in betting in rugby. It would help if you had more than knowledge on the sport to succeed in sports betting. As mentioned earlier, you should sharpen your research and analytical skills. 

Familiarity Bias

According to behavioral finance, people tend to hold stocks they are familiar with. In sports betting terms, the theory suggests that punters on online betting platforms like Betway usually bet on the teams they support or are familiar with. Such bets are made without any objective analysis and are mainly based on being familiar with the squad or coach. To be a better sports gambler, avoid placing bets on teams you support. 

Top 5 Slots with The Best Visual Design in 2020 from Sol Casino Canada

When playing online slots in casinos like Sol Casino, players want more than an interface that is easy to understand. Quite a long while ago, slots were simple in graphics and rules. Now, they count on free spins, bonus features, and a much more appealing design. It reached a point where players from Canada are choosing them according to the graphics and not only the estimated return.

Therefore, knowing the importance of how much providers invested in the design and animations, this list comprises the top 5 slots with the best visual design in 2020.

Best Slots in Terms of Design and Graphics

This selection includes games with all ranges of reels, paylines, bonuses, and special features. As it is possible to play them for free in casinos such as Sol Casino, players do not need to bet when they only want to experience the graphics.

1)  Noble Sky, Microgaming

Besides having four different levels of jackpot prizes, Noble Sky counts with carefully detailed symbols. More than that, they all blend perfectly with the history behind Noble Sky, even those symbols representing a deck of cards. Whenever a great match occurs or a Wild emerges, an extra animation appears, while the background is animated throughout the gameplay.

Microgaming is one of the top-notch providers in the market, which is why there is no surprise in having their games on this list.

2)  Rockability Wolves, Just For The Win Studios

Just For The Win is a young studio with several beautifully designed games, including names like Western Gold and Rockability Wolves. The one selected to be one of the top slots with the best design is the latter, with 5 reels and 20 paylines. Its fun and cartoonish symbols make it unique, themed after the golden days of the 1950s.

The reels on Rockability Wolves have more than fun animations, as free spins, re-spins, and stacked Wilds are constantly appearing.

3)  Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar, Microgaming 

Tarzan’s famous story is told in five reels and several different prizes up to 60,000.00 coins at once. In total, players can get 5,000x their stake while enjoying beautifully designed symbols and a stunning background.

With an RTP of 96.38%, Tarzan and The Jewels of Opar is inspired by a romance that never had the chance of becoming a movie. Now, Tarzan and Jane are featured with jewels in one of Microgaming’s most beautiful games.

4)  Shogun of Time, Just For The Win Studios

Full of features and based on an Asian futuristic samurai story, Shogun of Time has only 4 reels and spins varying from 0.10 and 100.00. One less reel is an intentional change to activate their special feature, and even so the maximum win is 2.700x any bet. Therefore, it is not one of the highest paying slots, but its visual is quite unique and original.

5)  Ancient Fortune: Zeus, Microgaming 

Ancient Fortunes: Zeus has highly detailed symbols connected to Greek mythology, and not a single unnecessary symbol, such as deck cards. Instead, everything makes the players feel like they are playing in Olympus, with Zeus’s eyes starring at them.

One of its best features is the possibility to get combinations from both ways. Besides, it is a low volatility slot game, which means it pays out quite often, although the payments tend not to be so high. Add the possibility of getting 10 to 20 free spins, and it is immediately clear that great graphics are not its only advantage.

Where to Play the Top 5 Slots in Graphics and Design?

The best way to enjoy online slots with modern or classic graphics is to choose a licensed casino, such as Sol Casino. There, players from Canada can create an account in two minutes and even test all the best online slots for free. From then on, there will always have a new release with a better visual to enjoy, not to mention the recurrent slot tournaments.

How technology and science are changing the face of ice hockey

Ice hockey has a history of many centuries in Europe and North America – even though not as an organized sport. You can’t imagine how they used to play it around 200 years ago, with tree branches and other improvised natural materials.

Today, it has evolved incredibly, not only in terms of protective clothing and equipment, but also tracking technology, training, and the possibility to play virtually everywhere, regardless of the weather outside.

Technology and science helped ice hockey evolving to the widespread sport that it is today. It is not just one of the most popular sports in North America, but also in the entire Norther Hemisphere. 

It is also the most popular sport in New Jersey, and people can bet on games with the help of  NJ betting sites like Unibet.

So, how did technology and science change the face of ice hocking? Below are some instances where they made a huge impact.

Clothing and equipment

One of the biggest improvements in clothing and equipment is the fact that these are lighter than ever, but at the same time safer and more performant than before.

The gear is not just lighter and safer, but also more durable. The protective gear uses 3D scanning technology which maps the dimensions of the player’s body. The pads are then built according to the precise measurements of the players. 

Also, high spec foam is used to reinforce some areas of the gear which cover critical parts of the body more exposed to traumas, like the neck and the back. The weight and the freedom of movement are much better not just comparing to a century ago, but even to around 20 years back.

The general consensus is that the players can handle and shoot the puck like never before, and things are just going for the better – even though is hard to think of any further improvement in this area.

Rob Nelson hockey player wearing flourine

Tracking technology

Ever wondered about statistics like the speed of the puck, the force with which it is hit, the speeds of the players and the distances travelled by them or the possession statistics? 

All these can now be brought to the public by using the tracking technology – chips which are inserted into the puck, but also into the back of the hockey jerseys. And if the fan standing behind the glass or in front of the TV is just curious about the stats, the coaches really need those numbers, based on which they make entire strategies and training regimes.

Even though this technology is implemented for some years now, it is still regarded as a real game changer.

Video replays and the future

Video replays are used by referees to decide the outcome when it is too close to call a play. This will too change because NHL is aiming at putting sensors in the goalposts. The sensors will help the referees and officials take the right decision when the call is way less than an inch.

But game video is used also during the match by teams and players to see what needs to be changed and adjust it accordingly. 


Technology and science also work hand in hand to provide many metrics which will help in training. And that means data about the players in terms of health, fitness, and daily habits. The data analytics will help having a better picture of a player’s strengths and weaknesses. All these combined with workout and nutritional programs help coaches in training, which too is improved by technological advancements. Special programs are used for special trainings, including electrodes, hydro therapies, and recoveries from injuries.

Using the New Gopro Camera for Kayaks

Here at Untamed Science, we’ve been working with Gopro’s for nearly 10 years. We’ve had every iteration of new cameras and were even GoPro ambassadors working directly with GoPro for a few years. Now that the new Hero 9 is out we wanted to run it through a few tests to see how it works in whitewater kayaking. Here is what we came up with.


How to Study for a Science Test in One Night

In today’s fast-paced college environment, it can be a challenge to find the time to prepare for each assignment and exam in the depth that would be ideal. You are probably torn between a dozen different activities on any given day, from writing and essay to going to practice to working a shift at your part-time job to meeting family responsibilities. So, what do you do when you are pressed for time and a major science exam is looming on the horizon? In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the ways you can study for a science test in just one night to make the most out of the limited time available.

First, it’s worth noting that college and university students do best when they attend class every day and pay careful attention to what the professor says. If you go to class regularly, take careful notes, and read the textbook each week, you will be in a good position to understand what will be on the exam and will have less need to cram for an exam. However, it isn’t always possible to find enough time to devote to every course, so when the worst happens and you need to study for a test fast, what can you do?

Balance Studying and Resting

Your academic future might rest on the outcome of a test you haven’t fully prepared for. The best place to start is to determine how much time you have available to study. Some students might want to stay up all night studying, but if you don’t get any sleep, you will do worse on a test than you might otherwise do because the exhaustion will reduce the efficiency of your mind and make it harder for you to remember the information you were studying. Therefore, one of the biggest tips in preparing for a science test is to make sure you set aside enough time to get a good night’s sleep the night before. Being well-rested will help you to forge new mental connections and keep yourself operating at better efficiency. After deducting the time you will devote to sleep from your available time, consider what more you have to do and what time you can give to studying.

Drink more water, as it helps the brain to work with fewer distractions. Don’t wait till you become thirsty. When you feel like your mind is going numb, eat a menthol candy, or even brush your teeth. Menthol flavor/smell energizes cognitive abilities for a brief period and helps to focus. But don’t use sugar for the same purposes! Or you will experience energy decline very soon. 

Your next step is to prioritize the material that you need to review for the test. Not everything is equally likely to appear on the exam. Try to determine which material is most likely to be tested and which material is likely to earn you the highest number of points. By prioritizing the most valuable information, you can be sure to devote your time and energy where it will do the most good. For science tests, making sure that you have memorized the required formulas and have a command of specific vocabulary is probably the best place to start. This information can be applied in a number of different ways and will help you across the questions of the exam. 

Pay Attention to Subject Specific Concepts

After memorizing formulas, you should also consider the most important subject-specific concepts. One way to look for these is to review the textbook and examine the headings used in the chapters. This will give you an idea of the major concepts that are of the most importance. By examining the headings, you can anticipate some of the major areas that the exam will cover. Beyond this, the textbook will likely contain boldface or highlighted terms which may or may not appear in a glossary of terms. These vocabulary items will also likely clue you in to specific subjects that you need to know about.

Beyond this, it’s important to recognize that you won’t be able to learn the entire semester’s work in a night. Targeted studying will give you the most bang for your buck, but it’s also important to remember that you need to give your brain a chance to rest. Take breaks while you study to let information soak in and to avoid burnout or study fatigue.

The most precious practice you can employ when getting ready for exams, especially if the time is not enough for relaxed studying, is the Pomodoro technique. It requires a timer and nothing else. You need to work for 25 minutes without distractions and then make a 5-10 minute (define it yourself) break. Every four Pomodoro cycles, you can take a long break of 20-30 minutes. If you follow this routine for two days, you will see how much you can accomplish. It gives enough time to grasp some material and also balances your work-rest routine. There are even books written in support of this method, but, finally, they all describe the same technique. There are mobile and desktop Pomodoro apps you can use. 

Don’t Hesitate to Ask for Help When Needed

If all else fails and you have a written exam coming up, an online writing service like Smart Writing Service can help. You might be wary about using a professional writer to help with a paper, but students across the country are taking advantage of some of the most powerful writing services in the world and so should you. Services like these use professional academic writers to produce custom research papers and essays that can show you the right way to approach your topic. When you use the power of a professional writing service, you can take a shortcut through studying for your exam. Many services offer emergency writing services to help students achieve their goals on the tightest of deadlines. Studying for a test in one night is hard, but a little help can make it easier.